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虚拟语气:虚拟条件句中的动词的特殊形式

条件句(Conditional Sentences)
条件句有两种,一种是真实条件句(Sentences of Real Condition),表示一个可能实现的情况:
I’11 help him if he asks me.
如果他向我提出,我可以帮助他。
If she isn’t in,leave her a note.
如果她不在家,给她留一个条子。

另一种是虚拟条件句(Sentences of Unreal Condition),表示一种纯然假想的情况或实现的可能性不大的情况,这时动词需用特殊形式,称为虚拟语气,虚拟条件句有两种:
1.谈过去的情况,动词为:
had+过去分词 would have+过去分词
If he had asked me, I would have helped him.
如果他向我提出了,我就帮助他。(但他没向我提出)
If she had left five minutes earlier.she would have caught the train
如果她早五分钟动身,她就赶上火车了。(但动身晚了)

2.谈现在或将求情况,动词为:
过去式would+动词原型
If I had the money.I would travel round the world
如果我有钱我将作环球旅行。(但我没有钱。)
I would help you if I could.
如果能我是会帮助你的。(但不可能)

动词为be时,多用were这个形式:
If I were you,I would accept the job.
我要是你我会接受这份工作。

有时if可以省略,这时后面要用倒装语序:
Had I taken (=If I had taken)your advice,I wouldn’t have made that mistake.
如果我听了你的劝告,我就不会犯那个错误了。
Were I in your position,I would stay.
我要是处在你的地位我会留下。

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