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英语过去分词做表语,宾语,状语以及用于被动语态

1.过去分词在句子中的作用大致与现在分词相似,可以用作:
1)表语:
Now my hand is swollen.
现在我的手肿起米了。

2)定语:
I’ve got a brother called Jack.
我有一个弟弟叫杰克。

3)状语:
Greatly interested,I asked many questions.
我大感兴趣,问了很多问题。

4)过去分词也可构成复合宾语:
You’d better have your shoes mended.
你最好请人把鞋补一下。

过去分词多有被动的意思,如:
I found the glass broken.
(比较:The glass is broken.)
They found the stolen bicycle.
(比较:The bicycle was stolen.)

2.过去分词作表语:
过去分词作表语时很多,多和be构成谓语(a),也可和其他系动词构成谓语(b):
a.She is never bored.
她从不感到厌烦。
Kate was scared.
凯特很惊慌。
The lock is broken.
锁坏了。
It seems to be infected.它似乎感染了。

b.My sister got married last week.
我姐姐上星期结婚了。
You’11 feel relaxed and happy.
你会感到轻松愉快。
She looked disappointed.
她显得很失望的样子。
He seemed delighted at the idea.
他听了这想法很高兴。

“be+过去分词”这种结构和被动语态很相似,差别是作表语时表示状态,而被动语态表示(被动)动作,试比较:
带表语的结构(表示状态)
The cup is broken.
杯子破了。
The library is closed.
图书馆关门了。
He was injured in the leg.
他的腿受了伤。
The garden is surrounded by a wall
花园有墙围着。

被动语态(表示动作)
It was broken by me.
是我打破的。
When was it closed?
什么时候关的?
He has been injured twice.
他受过两次伤。
They were soon surrounded.
他们不久就被包围了。

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